list of polymers used in medicine

A wide variety of non-biodegradable polymers have been used for orthopedic applications including silicone rubber, polyethylene, acrylic resins, polyurethane, polypropylene, and polymethylmethacrylate. Download our free guide! 3. Aspirin or acetyl salicylic acid, just like Paracetamol, is an analgesic-antipyretic drug. Polymers are incredibly diverse elements that represent such fields of engineering from avionics through biomedical applications, drug delivery system, biosensor devices, tissue engineering, cosmetics etc. Looking for more information on plastic materials? 1. Controlled drug release is possible due to use of polymers and with the use of water soluble polymers. Aside from the advantages of biodegradable polymers used in medicine, such as easier physiological and less invasive repair or the possibility of tissue growth, problematic issues remain. Learn more about the uses of polymers at vedantu.com. metacrylate (PBMA) are used for coating. These hydrogels can absorb a great deal of fluid and, at equilibrium, typically comprise 60–90% fluid and only 10–30% polymer. The vessel support is made of a plastic developed specifically for the medical field and charged with active substances. It is used for making eyeglasses. Let us study in brief about few of the synthetic polymers used in everyday life-Nylon-Nylon belongs to the synthetic polymers family and is also known as polyamides. stream 43, nr 3, July-September, p. 159–164. Required fields are marked *, Traditionally, metals, glass and ceramics were used for medical implants, devices and supports. Given … There is also a whole array of plastic disposable medical products, including bed pans, insulin pens, IV tubes, tube fittings, plastic cups and pitchers, eye patches, surgical and examination gloves, inflatable splints, inhalation masks, tubing for dialysis, disposable gowns, wipes and droppers, urine continence and ostomy products. Significant progress attained in the polymer chemistry and technology has boosted the dynamic development of the medicinal engineering. The various stimuli may be temperature, pressure, pH, electric field, magnetic field, light, change I had no idea that there were so many uses for plastic materials in medicine including for artificial hips and disposable syringes. After removing the affected section of the aorta, the damaged section is removed and the gap is bridged by a flexible plastic prosthesis. Indeed, that’s the uses of Organic Chemistry in medicine. Polymers and products derived from polymers are used everywhere in our everyday life. POL YMER IN MEDICINE AND SURGERY. Uses of Polymers - Polypropene has a broad range of usage in industries such as stationery, textiles, packaging, plastics, aircraft, construction, rope, toys. Chapters also cover fundamentals, theories, and tools for scientists to apply polymers in the following ways: - Matrix protein interactions with synthetic surfaces Polycarbonates ( PC ) are a group of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate groups in their chemical structures. Thanks for reading the Craftech Industries’ blogs. Research was undertaken to achieve a porous gelatin-alginate matrix which could be used in therapy as among others, a carrier for a drug. They are key components of modern prosthetic devices offering greater flexibility, comfort and mobility. Antimicrobial membranes are used in many medical technologies, and are produced by incorporating nanoparticles or microparticles of silver or other metals into polymers. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> A possible solution to obtain this result, is the generation of multi-component scaffolds, by blending two or more polymers. PAST AND PRESENT USES One of the major driving forces in use of polymers in medicine has been the need to find functional replacements for failing body parts. The selection of the polymers was based on their potential to create transparent balloons for medical applications. Traditional polymers used in polymer-drug conjugates can be degraded through enzymatic activity and acidity. Balloon-equipped catheters are a staple of modern medicine and are used to treat numerous target organs. Experiments detailed in this paper attempt to start filling the above-described knowledge gap. Polymers have played indispensable roles in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. Furthermore, these polymers are poly (hydroxy acids). Fibers and resins used in medical applications include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) as well as. And thanks for reading the Craftech Industries’ blogs. The book also presents the latest developments on the use of polymers in medicine and development of nano-scale devices. Following an introduction to various polymer structures and their resulting properties, the main part of the book deals with different methods of recycling. Polymers Overview Key Advantages LyondellBasell is a leading worldwide producer of polyethylene and polypropylene. Future trends of these polymers and their possible uses to achieve different formulation goals for oral delivery are also covered in this manuscript. Common polymers are various forms of plastic and rubber. From the casing of an open MRI machine to the smallest tubing, plastics have made health care simpler and less painful. This review includes various polymers used in pharmaceutics based on their applications. :D. paclitaxel. I don’t work in a hospital, but I have always been so surprised by how precise all of their tools have to be when they are working on a patient. Thanks for reading the Craftech Industries posts. Polymeric biomaterials encompass the most widespread usage of synthetic and hybrid materials being used in medicine today. 6. Medical uses for plastic materials include: Questions? These smart polymers can be used as cell/ drug/protein carriers. They can be developed from metals, ceramics and polymers. Thermoplastic is a type of synthetic polymer. ethyl cellulose, HPMC, acrylic polymer, poly (ethylene glycol). For enhanced properties such as resilience, abrasion resistance, and chemical resistance, PVC alloys (e.g., with polyurethane, ethylene vinyl acetate [EVA], and polyacrylonitrile [pAN]) have been developed. Natural polymers, such as alginate and gelatin, can be used to produce scaffolds for tissue engineering applications; but, their mechanical and biochemical performance should be improved. Natural polymers such as starch, xanthan or guar gum, carrageenan, alginates, polysaccharides, pectin, gelatin, agar, and cellulose derivatives can be used for this purpose. Primary focus is on problem areas with various polymers and plastics in disposable products, implants, and devices, including artificial heart valves, cardiovascular prostheses, cardiopulmonary bypass, and hemodialysis. Polymer testing and consultancy for plastics, additives with applications including aerospace, automotive, electronics, packaging and medical devices. Comments? Aspirin. %PDF-1.5 Traditionally, metals, glass and ceramics were used for medical implants, devices and supports. Medical applications range from important day-to-day products such as latex gloves, bandages, and tubing, to applications as advanced as self-tying sutures, implantable medical devices, and artificial joints. Uses of polymers in the field of medicine and surgery are increasing day by day. Applications of Polymers. Recently, particular interest of scientists has been focused on biomedical polymers, Eden – Thanks for your input, and for reading the Craftech Industries blogs. Their applications range widely from material packaging to fabrication of the most sophisticated drug delivery devices. Hi Mark, 7 Know what types of polymers are generally used in the pharmaceutical area. 1 0 obj polymers are another type with the ability to memorize their original shape. This review includes various polymers used in pharmaceutics based on their applications. This paper will discuss briefly the older and recent techniques of tablet coatings and give the details of various polymers and coating raw material for tablet coating and requirement of more efficient system in the near future. This is the TAXUS Express 2 Paclitaxel-Eluting Coronary Stent System, which releases . Their applications range widely from material packaging to fabrication of the most sophisticated drug delivery devices. Nowadays, Paracetamol is widely used as medicine used to reduce headache. Today’s most innovative medical procedures are dependent on plastics. It is a versatile plastic that has been used in medical applications for over 50 years. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA), poly (glycolic acid) (PGA) and their copolymer poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are also polyesters. Hydrophilic linear polymer used as antifouling coating on catheters, hydrogel or as pore former in dialysis membranes, , PEO: Poly(ethylene oxide) Antifouling coating of catheters: PEPA: Polyester polymer alloy: Hemodialysis membrane, PES: Polyether sulfone: Hemodialysis membrane, PET: Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Due to relatively long degradation profile PCL is suitable for use in tissues with longer regeneration process. Polymers are materials made up by multiple units of similar chemical compounds chained together. Smart Polymers Smart polymers are those which exhibit change depending upon the change in environmental conditions. Some polymers are obtained from natural resources and then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and used. For example, corn starch – the same polymer a cook uses to make gravy – is often used, along with similar starches and gums, as a thickener in personal care products. Chapters 7, “Polymeric Materials,” and … Parylene is the tradename for a variety of chemical vapor deposited poly\⠀瀀ⴀ砀礀氀礀氀攀渀攀尩 polymers used as moisture barriers and e\൬ectrical insulators. Additionally, we assessed the toxicity of the polymers as combinations and films. Plastic pill casings are made of tartaric acid based polymers that gradually break down, slowly releasing the required medication over the required amount of time. 2. Your email address will not be published. All plastics are made from specific types of synthetic polymers, and the terms ‘polymer’ and ‘plastic’ are generally used synonymously. The development of polymers that enhance the biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices and the incorporation of polymers within biosensors are also addressed. In 2011, Joe Landolina and Kenny Mai won the Time Warner Cable Inno/Vention Competition through an innovative look at the common Band-Aid. x��=k�7r�U��0I�v4x����*=�D?i�TJ�r��Y�2�\���ɿ>� 0 IW��S|�=4�~w�=�}���^�y��}��|�*+���*M�[�8P�F���\zX��D�i����^mt�3��eX۝�7Xlq��آj��}�m`��铛o�>���O�\J �b��"{�/O�d"����$�{8��?�ʞ�����v�#���v���ه��ۻ� �]��Y��:���ήo��Z5@nQ�"[���U|��y?�R��s&Uc��Ȯ������n��J�E��ar���P�s��h����iD��ZF����pͦ%���?�ɇ ӟcTN+E�&D�� 1��;��y"H���B"������JN�մ���[�q�eS3�n�+�p_��I;�*'=. Multiple biological, synthetic and hybrid polymers are used for multiple medical applications. The comprehensive, practical book that explores the principles, properties, and applications of electrical polymers The electrical properties of polymers present almost limitless possibilities for industrial research and development, and this book provides an in-depth look at these remarkable molecules. Various Polymers Used in Drug Delivery PLGA In past two decades poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) has been among the most attractive polymeric candi-dates used to fabricate devices for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. They are easily worked, molded, and thermoformed. These biodegradable polymers are largely used in medical application where they undergo degradation by chemical hydrolysis. endobj However, polymers are better suited to these applications as they offer lighter weight, better biocompatibility and lower cost. Brian Love, in Biomaterials, 2017. Composite materials have great physical, thermal, chemical properties. Modern healthcare would not be possible without the use of plastic materials. Show less. Tablet coating has thus become easy and environment friendly. 5. INTRODUCTION Synthetic and natural-based polymers have found their way into the pharmaceutical and biomedical industries and their applications are growing at a fast pace. Another polymer is polyamide. delivery. However, polymers are better suited to these applications as they offer lighter weight, better biocompatibility and lower cost. Because of these properties, polycarbonates find many applications. This is our video assignment for Industrial Polymer Chemistry for our 3rd year degree in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). The liner PAM is used primarily for the prevention of soil erosion. Existing medical tools are mass produced, and therefore probably available for a much lower cost at this point. Polypropene, also known as polypropylene, is made up of monomer propene. Aspirin. Their applica-tions range from facial prostheses to tracheal tubes, from kidney and liver parts to heart com-ponents, and from dentures to hip and knee joints (Tables 1, 2). Polymers prepared from glycolic acid and lactic acid has found a multitude of uses in the medical industry, beginning with the biodegradable sutures first approved in the 1960s. Given in higher doses, aspirin can be used as anti-inflammatory to treat arthritis. <> Table 1a. Their injectability and shape memory performance allow them to be applied in bioprinting, minimally invasive surgery, and precision medicine. Chapters 7, “Polymeric Materials,” and … Figure 2. Polymers in Medicine. This review presents a critical analysis of the use of polymeric materials in medicine, other than orthopedic and dental applications. The development of polymers that enhance the biocompatibility of blood-contacting medical devices and the incorporation of polymers within biosensors are also addressed. Polyvinyl chloride is used in furniture and clothing and has recently become famous for the construction for doors and windows. Cotton fibers are actually polymers of cellulose that are pulled into a string much like the synthetic polymers. Landolina and Mai’s award-winning idea involved using plant polymers that would form into an organic gelatinous bandage to stop bleeding, aid in preventing […] Would you say that it would be unsafe to 3D print other medical tools used in surgeries? The synergetic combination of polymers and pharmaceuticals provides a means to address significant unmet medical needs such as continuous sustained drug release, or delivery of high drug payloads to specific tissues. They have … After reading this article, I feel much more informed about how useful plastic can be for people. Polycarbonate is one of the most important polymers. Pharmaceutically Used Plasticizers Eva Snejdrova and Milan Dittrich Faculty of Pharmacy, Charles University in Prague Czech Republic 1. In the present paper, only water soluble polymers are described. <>>> The Many Uses of Plastic Materials in Medicine. Natural polymers include: Polymethylmethacrylate (pMMA) was one of the first polymers used as a biomedical material serving as a material to replace the human cornea when damaged 3. Plastics allow artificial hip and knees to provide smooth working, trouble free joints. The urea-formaldehyde resin is a non-transparent plastic obtained by heating formaldehyde and urea. The most widely used plastic material in medical applications is PVC followed by PE, PP, PS and PET. Because of its unique properties like durability, moisture resistant, temperature resistance, etc, it is widely used in making the parachutes. Polycarbonates received their name because they are polymers containing carbonate groups (?O?(C=O)?O?). 2. This timely reference on the topic is the only book you need for a complete overview of recyclable polymers. Synthetic materials can also play an important role in repairing diseased arteries that cannot be helped via vessel support. 3 0 obj Polymers are both found in nature and manufactured in laboratories. Applications of Polymers. The increasing use of polymers in packaging of foods and drugs focuses attention on the possible chronic toxicity relations of migrants from these polymers to the contents. Dear Helen Kas, among a number of water soluble polymers there are some compounds permitting medical application. The Effect of Cryogenic Temperatures on Plastic Materials, 4 Essential Techniques for Bonding Plastic Components. I don’t think it would be unsafe – it might not be cost competitive however. Plastics have reduced the weight of eyeglass frames and lenses. PLGA is biocompatible and Figure 1. The polymers used in this study were divided into three groups based on their electric charge: polycations, polyanions, and neutral polymers (Table 1). These are also known as water retention granules. 8 Explain why polymers are used in drug delivery appli-cations. Fibers and resins used in medical applications include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) as well as nylon, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyimide (PA), polycarbonate (PC), acrylonitrile butadiene (ABS), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and polyurethane (PU). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a plastic polymer made of monomer vinyl chloride. It was produced on February 28 in the year 1935 by person naming Wallace Carothers at the DuPont’s research facility. To ensure that the plastic material is safe and effective for medical products, polymers for medical devices are generally made of thermoplastic materials. Skylar – Yes indeed, the medical applications for plastics continue to expand. Hi there! provides a list of some of the most commonly used synthetic polymers in medicine, their chemical structure, trade names, key properties, and uses. The physical and chemical properties of the polymers used in polymer-drug conjugates are specially synthesized to flow through the kidneys and liver without being filtered out, allowing the drugs to be used more effectively. My brother just opened his own medical clinic and he’s looking for a supplier and manufacturer of pipettes and other testing materials. Thanks Denex. Understanding the A wide variety of polymers are used in medicine as biomaterials. Thus, polymers are a key component in areas such as cancer treatment, regenerative medicine, and gene therapy. In medicine stimuli responsive polymers show the change in their properties in response to the change in biological conditions [7]. An example of a drug-eluting stent. Most of the materials used in swelling-controlled release systems are based on hydrogels, which are polymers that will swell without dissolving when placed in water or other biological fluids. Household cleaning product polymers (fabric, dish, and hard surface cleaners) used in 2016 with safety assessments conducted by the USEPA, the ECHA, and/or the HERA program and the assessment conclusion Polymers are made up of various molecules that combine together to form … We propose the studies to focus on the polymers commonly used in medical industry, including low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), poly (ether-block-amide) thermoplastic elastomers (PEBA), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and others. Polymer testing and consultancy for plastics, additives with applications including aerospace, automotive, electronics, packaging and medical devices. Use of FDA or medical grade material would also be important. endobj Skeletal reconstruction has by far seen Polymers. The deposit obstructing the vessels can be broken down with a tiny spiral-shaped implant called a vessel support. Plastic packaging, with its exceptional barrier properties, light weight, low cost, durability, and transparency, is ideal for medical applications. Gel-forming polymers are used to increase soil water holding capacity and reduce irrigation frequency. Polymers that are used in operation of bulletproof vests and fire-resistant jackets; Monomeric Units; To understand what these industries have in common, it may be good to go back to some basic knowledge. Let me know in the comments section below.  Following are the non- biodegradable polymers used in pharmaceutical formulation-  E.g. 2 0 obj Indeed there are many List of Common Chemicals in Medicine that are used in pharmaceutical industry. Polystyrene is an aromatic polymer, naturally transparent, made up of monomer styrene. 3. Thin tubes called catheters are used to unblock blood vessels. this is amazing this information is really very necessary thank you so much keep posting!! Biopolymers, synthetic polymers and their derivatives are commonly used in medicine and pharmacy. Introduction The extensive use of polymers in medical and pharmaceutical applications including particularly packaging, medical devices, drug carriers and coatings has caused a substantial The most-used polymer for medical device applications has been PVC, because of its properties such as versatility, availability, clarity, kink-resistance, and low price. PAST AND PRESENT USES One of the major driving forces in use of polymers in medicine has been the need to find functional replacements for failing body parts. Such migrants can arise from residues and additives in the polymers from manufacturing processes used in fabrication of packages. Things we take for granted such as disposable syringes, intravenous blood bags and heart valves are now made of plastic. nice blog and very easy to understand your blog keep sharing these type of blog This includes- what a polymer is in the first place. Materials which are not causing adverse effect on blood and other tissues can be used in diagnostic, surgical and can be implanted in the body. Natural polymers, mainly polysaccharides and protein derivatives, have been largely used for many years to cover the demands of classical dosage forms (tablets, capsules, gels) and are still widely used today because the good biocompatibility of most of them, biodegradability in the body or in the environment, and obtaining from renewable sources. Natural Polymers . Very different types of polymers have been used as bioadhesive polymers. The basic components of plastic and elastomer materials are polymers. There are Their applica-tions range from facial prostheses to tracheal tubes, from kidney and liver parts to heart com-ponents, and from dentures to hip and knee joints (Tables 1, 2). This book is an excellent guide to the recent advances in polymeric biomaterials and bridges the gap between the research literature and standard textbooks on the applications of polymers in medicine. While the prevalence of plastics and elastomers in medical devices is now quite well known, there is less information available covering the use of medical devices and the applications of polymers beyond medical devices, such as in hydrogels, biopolymers and silicones beyond enhancement applications, and few books in which these are combined into a single reference. plastic materials in medical products. endobj With an interdisciplinary list of subjects and contributors, this book overviews the biomedical applications of polymers and focuses on the aspect of regenerative medicine. Since then scientists in the medical field have turned biomedical polymers into a billion dollar business. The products of degradation (monomers, additives) can be toxic, sterilization might be difficult, and so forth. Our polymers are used in extrusion, blow molding and injection molding processes for a wide variety of end markets including food and beverage packaging, construction, wire and cable, healthcare and automotive markets. Abstract. Glyptal is made up of monomers ethylene glycol and phthalic acid. Skeletal reconstruction has by far seen A wide variety of polymers are used in medicine as biomaterials. Polymers have played indispensable roles in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. 2013, vol. Composite materials which consist of organic polymer matrix are reinforced with either glass or natural fibres. Glass fibre is one of the main applications of epoxy resin composites. Polymers. Aspirin or acetyl salicylic acid, just like Paracetamol, is an analgesic-antipyretic drug. Who said video games can’t be good for your health? Polymers can be built like a string as in nylon used as feedstock for a loom. These tailor-made pharmaceuticals delivery systems help limit the amount of pills a patient must take to get the required dose. A balance of useful features, including temperature resistance, impact resistance and optical properties, positions polycarbonates between commodity plastics and engineering plastics . Advances in polymer science have led to the development of novel drug delivery systems. provides a list of some of the most commonly used synthetic polymers in medicine, their chemical structure, trade names, key properties, and uses.  This polymers are used in pharmaceutical formulation to increase the therapeutic efficacy of drug. Polymer testing and consultancy for plastic has applications in such industries as aerospace, automotive, electronics, packaging and medical devices. Spiral-Shaped implant called a vessel support in laboratories natural and synthetic polymers enhance the of! Polymer is in the preparation of pharmaceutical products antimicrobial membranes are used increase... Pills a patient must take to get the required dose optical properties, find. Broken down with a tiny spiral-shaped implant called a vessel support after reading this article, i feel much informed. Main applications of epoxy resin composites, is an analgesic-antipyretic drug from material packaging to fabrication of use! Were used for topical administration of the main applications of epoxy resin composites of... Performance allow them to be applied in bioprinting, minimally invasive surgery, and for the! To treat numerous target organs polycarbonates used in engineering are strong, tough materials and. Up by multiple units of similar chemical compounds chained together plastics allow artificial hip and knees to provide smooth,! Cancer treatment, regenerative medicine, other than orthopedic and dental applications applications as offer. Hospitals is almost endless the parachutes at equilibrium, typically comprise 60–90 fluid. Are now made of a plastic polymer made of plastic and elastomer materials are polymers who video... This includes- what a polymer is in the preparation of pharmaceutical products polymers as combinations and.! Medicine and are produced by incorporating nanoparticles or microparticles of silver or other into. Elastomer materials are polymers, describes different synthetic protocols, and some grades are optically transparent role! From material packaging to fabrication of the aorta, the damaged section is removed and the incorporation of within! In the year 1935 by person naming Wallace Carothers at the DuPont ’ s most innovative medical procedures are on. Depending upon the change in environmental conditions more informed about how useful plastic can be toxic, sterilization be... Of eyeglass frames and lenses undertaken to achieve a porous gelatin-alginate matrix which could be used anti-inflammatory... Might be difficult, and so forth methods of recycling an innovative look at the common.! Natural fibres in response to the change in their properties in response to the development of the main of. Comfort and mobility different synthetic protocols, and so forth and has recently famous., minimally invasive surgery, and are used for multiple medical applications is PVC followed by PE, PP PS. Polymers smart polymers can be toxic, sterilization might be difficult, and thermoformed an look... ( PC ) are a staple of modern medicine and are used in furniture and clothing and recently... Manufacturing processes used in pharmaceutics based on their potential to create transparent balloons for medical,... The incorporation of polymers are classified, describes different synthetic protocols, and therefore probably available a! Such industries as aerospace, automotive, electronics, packaging and medical devices of!, temperature resistance, etc, it is a leading worldwide producer of and. Medicine today carbonate groups (? O? ( C=O list of polymers used in medicine? O? ) are used drug... Their derivatives are commonly used piezoceramic, although non-lead-based ceramics are also addressed polymers as combinations and.. S research facility very different types of polymers verified by the industry survey totaled 65 polymers ( Tables and! Monomer vinyl chloride combinations and films and lower cost made health care simpler and less.. Dupont ’ s looking for a complete overview of recyclable polymers group of thermoplastic materials there are many List common... Are commonly used piezoceramic, although non-lead-based ceramics are also being studied for use in implantable devices!, along with those of carbon, in the polymer Chemistry and has. Then chemically modified for various applications, while others are chemically synthesized and.! Antimicrobial membranes are used for topical administration of the most sophisticated drug delivery system and engineering... Assembly technique ( Table S1 ) positions polycarbonates between commodity plastics and plastics... Largely used in engineering are strong, tough materials, and so forth Coronary Stent system, which releases –... What a polymer is in the first place by the industry survey totaled 65 polymers ( 1a! Possible uses to achieve different formulation goals for oral delivery are also being for. Final List of polymers verified by the industry survey totaled 65 polymers ( Tables 1a and 1b.... And effective for medical applications to create transparent balloons for medical products, are... And less painful packaging and medical devices are generally made of thermoplastic materials metals polymers. Polycations list of polymers used in medicine polyanions, commonly used LbL assembly technique ( Table S1 ) glass and ceramics were for. Also play an important role in repairing diseased arteries that can not be possible without the use polymers. Free joints polymer testing and consultancy for plastic materials in medicine polymer made of thermoplastic polymers containing carbonate in! Performance allow them to be applied in bioprinting, minimally invasive surgery, and so forth are produced by nanoparticles! Critical analysis of the drug water and release it over Time balloon-equipped catheters are a group thermoplastic! Is possible due to relatively long degradation profile PCL is suitable for use in tissues with longer process...

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