9:18 The sons of Noah who went out from the ship were Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Ham was the father of Canaan. Canaan (Hebrew: כְּנַעַן Kənā‘an), according to the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible, was a son of Ham and grandson of Noah, and was the father of the Canaanites. In any case, Ham ran out to tell his two brothers, Shem and Japheth, that their father was up to something weird.  Moreover, according to the Hebrew Bible (Exo.  This often came as a result of European anxieties to avoid being sent to the colonies, as they were terrified of the high casualty rate of settlers due to disease and warfare. This account baffles many Bible readers because it appears as though Noah curses his grandson Canaan, son of his son Ham, simply because Ham walked in and accidentally discovered Noah passed out naked and drunk. Keep in mind they did not use the word adoption back then. 9:20 Noah started out as a farmer, and planted a … Noah was uncovered in his tent. No one knows exactly when he is born, just that he’s the youngest. The Old Testament student manual, which is published by the Church and is the manual currently used to teach the Old Testament in LDS Institutes, teaches that Canaan could not hold the priesthood because of his ancestral lineage but mentions nothing of race or skin color: Therefore, although Ham himself had the right to the priesthood, Canaan, his son, did not. The Hamitic people have a bad reputation. (2007).  By turning the drinking of the wine into a religious ceremony, Jubilees alleviates any misgivings that may be provoked by the episode of Noah's drunkenness. John N. Swift and Gigen Mammoser, "'Out of the Realm of Superstition: Chesnutt's 'Dave's Neckliss' and the Curse of Ham'", David Mark Whitford (2009), "The curse of Ham in the early modern era", pages 174–175; Nina G. Jablonski (2012), "Living Color: The Biological and Social Meaning of Skin Color", page 219. The explanation that black Africans, as the "sons of Ham", were cursed, possibly "blackened" by their sins, was sporadically advanced during the Middle Ages, but its acceptance became increasingly common during the slave trade of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. , According to Rashi, citing an earlier Talmudic source, the heathen were never included in the sanction of possessing slaves as the children of Israel were permitted to do, for the Scripture says (Leviticus 25:44): "Of them you shall buy, etc. warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning "black", the youngest son of Noah ( Genesis 5:32; comp Genesis 9:22 Genesis 9:24).The curse pronounced by Noah against Ham, properly against Canaan his fourth son, was accomplished when … Yet, especially in the 18th and 19th centuries, this story becomes foundational to the enslavement of dark-skinned people. The sons of Noah; Shem, Ham, and Japheth came out from the ark and became the ancestors of all the people on earth. Genesis 9:18. Some scholars point out that God has already blessed Noahâs sons in an earlier passage (see Genesis 9:1).  In 2013, The LDS church denounced the curse of Ham explanation for withholding the priesthood from black Africans. Shem and Japheth, avoiding looking at the naked Noah, covered the nakedness of their father. Genesis 9:20-27. Noah cannot curse that which God has already blessed. Perhaps Canaan may have had a part in the disrespect of Noah. The curse indicated that their descendants would be oppressed and under control of other nations. It is possible that the âcrimeâ is that Ham enters the tent without reservations, does not honor his father by assisting him in any way, and probably tells everyone about it.  Islam holds prophets of God in very high esteem, and some Muslims suggest the prophets are infallible. Ham’s name unknown, youngest of Noah’s sons, has four sons, Noah gets drunk, is naked, Ham sees, Noah curses Canaan, Ham’s son, possible sexual sin, dishonors father, God blesses sons, Noah can’t curse, no racial overtones, enslavement of dark-skinned people, Canaan stays in Shem’s land, God promises land of Canaan to Abraham. SONS OF JAPHETHThe sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras. This passage is the only one which is found in any Mormon scripture that bars a particular lineage of people from holding the priesthood, and, while nothing in the Book of Abraham explicitly denotes that Noah's curse was the same curse which is mentioned in the Bible or that the Egyptians were related to other black Africans, it later became the foundation of church policy with regard to the priesthood ban. Both his father and brothers warn that Canaan is doing wrong. ", "Are Black People the Result of a Curse on Ham", "The Anticipatory Use of Information as a Literary Feature of the Genesis Narratives", Sermon on separate heavens and race relations in Mississippi, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Curse_of_Ham&oldid=995763920, Latter Day Saint doctrines, beliefs, and practices, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Genesis 9:25: "And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren", This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 19:41. He tells his two older brothers about it. Perhaps Ham had snickered about the situation or in some other way showed disrespect (well-earned disrespect, some of us might be tempted to say) toward the old man. 1:23, 25 (Ps. Ham as the father of Canaan. Another ancient document charges that Ham âknewâ his father, using the same terminology as in the story of Dinah, when Hamor âtook her.â. Exactly what was going on when his son Ham (the text adds that he was "the father of Canaan") walked in on him is not completely clear, but it wasn't good. The vineyard episode in Genesis 9 is fundamentally difficult. The sons of Ham are Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Ca'naan, and it is from this line that will be subject to the other sons of Noah and their descendants. And for doing such, Japheth was blessed by extending his territory, sharing the “tents of Shem”, and having Canaan as his slave. 1 Chronicles 1:8-16 The sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, Put, and Canaan. Ham himself has four sons, namely: Cush (Ethiopia), Mizraim (Egypt), Put (Libya), and lastly, Canaan (Canaanites are believed to be the first people in Israel). Shem, son of Noah † Japhet, son of Noah; Bith, son of Noah Notes Individual Note. Ham, (in Hebrew: . In the parts of Africa where Christianity flourished in its early days, while it was still illegal in Rome, this idea never took hold, and its interpretation of scripture was never adopted by the African Coptic Churches. Ham had married Egyptus, a descendant of Cain (Abraham 1:21–24), and so his sons were denied the priesthood. (Babylonian Talmud Sanhedrin 70a.)  There, Boyle explains that the curse of Ham as an explanation for the complexion of coloured people was but a misinterpretation that was embraced by "vulgar writers", travelers, critics, and also "men of note" of his time.  In verse 25, Noah names Shem and Japheth as the "brethren" of Ham. It occurs in the context of Noah's drunkenness and is provoked by a shameful act perpetrated by Noah's son Ham, who "saw the nakedness of his father". This seems like quite a severe overreaction. Genesis 10:1-2. , The idea that serfs were the descendants of Ham soon became widely promoted in Europe. , The narrative's short five verses indicate that Canaan's Hamite paternity must have had great significance to the narrator or redactor, according to Sarna, who adds, "The curse on Canaan, invoked in response to an act of moral depravity, is the first intimation of the theme of the corruption of the Canaanites, which is given as the justification for their being dispossessed of their land and for the transfer of that land to the descendants of Abraham. Burnt, swarthy, black, A son of Noah, Genesis 5:32 7:13 9:18 10:1. According to Islam, Canaan, son of Noah or Yam, son of Noah was the fourth son of Noah and his wife Naamah.. Canaan is not in the Jewish holy book, the Torah, or the Christian holy book, the Bible.Those two books talk about Canaan's older brothers, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, but Canaan is only in the Muslim holy book, the Quran, or Koran.. According to another opinion, Ham defiled his father, and Noah cursed Canaan because Ham, with his father and his two brothers, had been previously blessed by God (Sanh. It is important to remember that there is no biblical verification for any of these theories. Descendents of Noah’s son Ham and his grandson Canaan, the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land of Canaan, are introduced to biblical narrative in Genesis shortly after the story of the flood. ", meaning, "Israel alone is permitted to buy from them [enslaved persons], but they are not permitted to buy [enslaved persons] from you, nor from one another.". In the past, some people claimed that the curse of Ham was a biblical justification for imposing slavery or racial discrimination upon black people, although this concept is essentially an ideologically driven misconception. The exact nature of Ham's transgression and the reason Noah cursed Canaan when Ham had sinned have been debated for over 2,000 years. And why will Japheth "dwell in the tents of Shem"? , The historian David Whitford writes of a “curse matrix” which was derived from the vagueness of Genesis 9 and interpreted by racialists to mean that it mattered not who was cursed or which specific group of people the curse originated with, all that mattering being that there was a vague reference to a generational curse that could be exploited by those seeking to justify their actions against black people, such as Southern slaveowners. Most believe there is more to the event. He was the recipient of the so-called Curse of Ham. Canaan, Ham’s son, was cursed, Gen. 9:18–25. , In 1835, Joseph Smith, the founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, published a work which was titled the Book of Abraham. 22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brethren without. Scholars believe Ham is the youngest of Noahâs three sons.  The castration theory has its modern counterpart in suggested parallels found in the castration of Uranus by Cronus in Greek mythology and a Hittite myth of the supreme god Anu whose genitals were "bitten off by his rebel son and cup-bearer Kumarbi, who afterwards rejoiced and laughed ... until Anu cursed him". SONS OF JAPHETHThe sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.  Further difficulties include Ham's being referred to as "the youngest son", when all other lists make him Noah's second son. Noah cursed Canaan, Ham's son, but didn't curse Ham. These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the people of the whole earth were dispersed. Library . 6:1–3] Noah’s practice and ceremonial functions parallel the festival of Shavuot as if it were a prototype to the celebration of the giving of the Torah. The concept of the curse of Ham finds its origins in Genesis 9: 20 And Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard:  In his work, he challenges that vision, explaining: And not only we do not find expressed in the Scripture, that the Curse meant by Noah to Cham, was the Blackness of his Posterity, but we do find plainly enough there that the Curse was quite another thing, namely that he should be a Servant of Servants, that is by an Ebraism, a very Abject Servant to his Brethren, which accordingly did in part come to pass, when the Israelites of the posterity of Sem, subdued the Canaanites, that descended from Cham, and kept them in great Subjection. Canaan, Ham’s son, was cursed, Gen. 9:18–25. Genesis 10:6.  It was later considered scripture by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). At any rate, Noah felt compelled to curse his son and his descendants.  Others, such as Ibn Kathir, more broadly criticised the Isra'iliyyat tradition, and avoided using such reports when explaining verses of the Quran. History 101: And the sons of Noah, that went forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan. Mizraim is Hebrew for Egypt. Ham could have been taken in as a son by Noah during his 500 years prior to Noah entering the arc. They look to other biblical texts to find an explanation. Ham. He became jealous of Noah's additional children born after the deluge, and began to view his father with enmity, and one day, when Noah lay drunk and naked in his tent, Ham saw him and sang a mocking incantation that rendered Noah temporarily sterile, as if castrated.  The justification of slavery itself through the sins of Ham was well suited to the ideological interests of the elite; with the emergence of the slave trade, its racialized version justified the exploitation of African labour. And the sons of Ham; Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. Ham, (in Hebrew: חָם Hebrew pronunciation: ) according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was the second son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.. Ham's descendants are interpreted by Flavius Josephus and others as having populated Africa and adjoining parts of Asia. After disembarking from the ark, Genesis reports, Noah planted a vineyard, drank some of the wine, and became drunk. Noah also drinks of the wine and gets drunk. Ham sees the ânakednessâ of his father. These are the three sons of Noah: and of them was the whole earth overspread. , Other ancient commentators suggested that Ham was guilty of more than what the Bible says. Ham's fourth son Canaan was prophetically cursed because he gazed at his fathers nakedness while he was drunk. , Historically, other Muslim scholars such as Ahmad Baba al-Timbukti criticised the Curse of Ham narrative and went on to criticise the association of black Africans with slaves. A modern Amharic commentary on Genesis notes the nineteenth century and earlier European theory that blacks were subject to whites as a result of the curse of Ham, but calls this a false teaching unsupported by the text of the Bible, emphatically pointing out that Noah's curse did not fall upon all descendants of Ham, but only on the descendants of Canaan, and asserting that it was fulfilled when Canaan was occupied by both Semites (Israel) and Japhetites. The curse indicated that their descendants would be oppressed and under control of other nations. , Philo of Alexandria, a 1st-century BC Jewish philosopher, said that Ham and Canaan were equally guilty, if not of whatever had been done to Noah, then of other crimes, "for the two of them together had acted foolishly and wrongly and committed other sins." According to a plaque on the tomb, he is revered as a prophet who lived for 536 years. In 1498, Annius of Viterbo claimed to have translated records of Berossus, an ancient Babylonian priest and scholar; which are today usually considered an elaborate forgery. Ham and his wife bore 4 sons who became the fathers of the nations of Africa. They are considered to be godless and worldly. The Curse of Ham (also called the curse of Canaan) refers to the curse that Ham's father, Noah, placed upon Ham's youngest son, Canaan, after Ham "saw his father's nakedness" because of drunkenness in Noah's tent.It is related in the Book of Genesis 9:20-27. However, this only seems odd if one takes “saw his father’s nakedness” literally. Nave's Topical Index. Egypt is sometimes referred to as the Land of Ham. See also Noah, Bible Patriarch. The scriptures adamantly state that Canaan was Ham’s son to make sure no one thought he was a son of Noah. According to Rab, Ham castrated Noah on the basis that, since Noah cursed Ham by his fourth son Canaan, Ham must have injured Noah with respect to a fourth son. Noah began to be a husbandman and he planted a vineyard. In the Old Testament, the third son of Noah (Gen. 5:32; 6:10; Moses 8:12, 27).Noah, his sons, and their families entered the ark, Gen. 7:13. Perhaps Canaan may have had a part in the disrespect of Noah. Noah's sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and their wives, accompanied Noah and his wife on the ark to escape the flood. The Talmud deduces two possible explanations, one attributed to Rab and one to Rabbi Samuel, for what Ham did to Noah to warrant the curse. The list of 70 names introduces for the first time a number of well known ethnonyms and toponyms important to biblical geography such as Noah's three sons Shem, Ham and Japheth, from which 18th century German scholars at the Göttingen School of History derived the race terminology Semites, Hamites and Japhetites. Noah, his sons, and their families entered the ark, Gen. 7:13. 1:4), but in Gen. 9:24 he is called the “youngest.”The exact etymology of the name is uncertain. " (Quote from Galatians 3:28 found in the New Testament or "Christian Scriptures of the Judeo-Christian Bible.  The same idea was raised by third-century rabbis, in the Babylonian Talmud (c. 500 AD), who argue that Ham either castrated his father, or sodomised him. (Genesis 9:22–27): It is noteworthy that the curse was made by Noah, not by God.  In addition, based on his interpretation of the Book of Abraham, Brigham Young believed that, as a result of this curse, negroes were banned from the Mormon priesthood.. In verse 22, we are again reminded that Canaan was Ham’s son and not Noah’s son. Later, however, Jubilees explains further that Noah had allocated Canaan a land west of the Nile along with his brothers, but that he violated this agreement and instead chose to squat in the land delineated to Shem (and later Abraham), and so rightly deserved the curse of slavery. These are scholarly attempts to explain why Canaan is cursed because the punishment appears to exceed the crime, especially since it is his father who does the wrongdoing. It introduces the protagonists, Noah and his three sons, but then adds a parenthetical comment that Ham was the father of Canaan (9:18); since Canaan is otherwise absent from this tale, this aside is troublesome. The “youngest son” who mistreated Noah (Genesis 9:24) seems to be a reference to Ham, but another option is that it refers to Canaan, Noah’s youngest grandson. Egypt referred to as the land of Ham. [Rashi explaining why the curse is repeated.]. 9:19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated. Ham was "blessed" in Genesis 9:1 – Noah did not curse him directly, instead cursing his son Canaan.. Ham has four sons: Cush, Mizraim, Put … 25 And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. ", Genesis 9:27: and Canaan shall be a slave to them. Genesis 10:6 'And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.'  Nevertheless, Genesis 9:23, in which Shem and Japheth cover Noah with a cloak while averting their eyes, suggests that the words are to be taken literally, and it has recently been pointed out that, in first millennium Babylonia, looking at another person's genitals was indeed regarded as a serious matter. His allotment of land includes everything west of the Nile and south of Gadir. , Nevertheless, most Christians, Muslims, Jews and Mormons now disagree with such interpretations, because in the biblical text, Ham himself is not cursed, and race or skin color is never mentioned.. Ham (Heb. 4). When it is time to leave, Canaan remains behind, settling in the territory of Shem. Noah began to be a man of the soil, and he planted a vineyard. He said to his brothers Adam the first man had only two sons (Cain and Abel) yet one killed the other because of the inheritance of the world [Cain killed Abel over a dispute how to divide the world between them according to Genesis Rabbah 22:7] and our father has three sons yet he seeks still a fourth son. It occurs in the context of Noah's drunkenness and is provoked by a shameful act perpetrated by Noah's son Ham, who "saw the nakedness of his father". Ham saw his father drunk and burst into aproarious laughter. Ham is the ancestor of the Arabians, Canaanites, and Africans. Noah's son Ham, the father of Canaan, saw his father naked and told his brothers, which led to Ham's son Canaan being cursed by Noah. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBringhurst254 (, to prevent the ordination of black men to its priesthood, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, "Scholars Owe New Dead Sea Scrolls Reading to Google", "The Curse of Ham—A New Reading in the Dead Sea Scrolls", "Ahmad Baba al-Timbukti and his Islamic critique of racial slavery in the Maghrib", Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours, Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, "Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview", "This Mormon Sunday school teacher was dismissed for using church's own race essay in lesson", "39 years later, priesthood ban is history, but racism within Mormon ranks isn't, black members say", "The Curse of Ham: A Case of Rabbinic Racism? Genesis 10:6 'And the sons of Ham: Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan.' חָם Hebrew pronunciation: ) according to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis, was the second son of Noah and the father of Cush, Mizraim, Phut and Canaan.. Ham's descendants are interpreted by Flavius Josephus and others as having populated Africa and adjoining parts of Asia. Ham was "blessed" in Genesis 9:1 – Noah did not curse him directly, instead cursing his son Canaan.. Sinds de 17e eeuw zijn er een aantal suggesties gedaan die de naam Ham in verband brengen met een Hebreeuws woord voor "verbrand", "zwart" of "heet", met het Egyptische woord ḥm voor "dienaar" of het woord ḥm voor "majesteit". He says, âCursed be Canaan, a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.â, He also blesses Shem and says that Canaan âshall be his servant.â, He blesses Japheth, who will dwell in the tents of Shem, and Canaan âshall be his servant.â. The Anglo-Irish scientist Robert Boyle—a seventeenth-century polymath who was also a theologian and a devout Christian—refuted the idea that blackness was caused by the curse of Ham, in his book Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664). Indeed, this entire chapter is an ode to Godâs command to Noah and his sons to âbe fruitful and multiply, and to fill the earth.â They did. ", Genesis 9:26: ...Blessed is יהוה the God of Shem: "Who is destined to keep His promise to [Shem's] offspring to give them the Land of Canaan" and he shall be: "Canaan shall be to them as a servant to pay tribute. , While Genesis 9 never says that Ham was black, he became associated with black skin, through folk etymology deriving his name from a similar, but actually unconnected, word meaning "dark" or "brown". , The Book of Jubilees also recounts the incident between Ham and Noah, and Noah's resulting curse against Canaan, in similar terms. At first sight, the question why Noah cursed his son Ham doesn’t seem very relevant for Christians nowadays. Or, was the reason they were called Ham, more in line with the thoughts of Noah's curse upon his grandson, Canaan (Ham's son) because Ham looked upon Noah's nakedness---told his brothers, Shem and Japheth---after Noah drank the wine he made from grapes, became drunk, and was uncovered in his tent (9:20-22, KJV [Noah, the father of wine making, was counted the only righteous God-fearing … Descendents of Noah’s son Ham and his grandson Canaan, the non-Israelite inhabitants of the land of Canaan, are introduced to biblical narrative in Genesis shortly after the story of the flood. When the term “younger son” is understood the mystery becomes clear. ", The majority of commentators, both ancient and modern, have felt that Ham's seeing his father naked was not a sufficiently serious crime to explain the punishment that follows. (Ham was the father of Canaan.) Annius, who frequently wrote of the "superiority of Christians over the Saracens", claimed that due to curse imposed upon black people, they would inevitably remained permanently subjugated by Arabs and other Muslims. This account contains several other parallels connecting Ham with Greek myths of the castration of Uranus by Cronus, as well as Italian legends of Saturn and/or Camesis ruling over the Golden Age and fighting the Titanomachy. According to the Book of Jubilees, Ham leaves his fatherâs house after being cursed and sets up a city on the south side of the mountain. It was the land of Israel that was assigned to Ham’s son, Canaan, and for centuries it was under the control of the Egyptians.  The treatment of Japheth in verses 26–27 raises questions: Why is YHWH named as the God of Shem, but not of Japheth? Shem and … One of the sons, Ham, became the founder of some groups that settled in Africa, although most of his descendants settled elsewhere, including Babylonia and Assyria in the Middle East.  The next stage are certain fables according to ancient Jewish traditions. The Egyptian word for Egypt was Kemet (or Kmt), meaning "black land" (in reference to the fertile dark soil along the Nile Valley). Scholars believe Ham is the youngest of Noah’s three sons. He is cursed a second time because he defies Noahâs allotment of land. Canaan, son of Ham; Cush, son of Ham; Mizraim, son of Ham; Phut, (Put) son of Ham Siblings. : "Even after the children of Shem will be exiled slaves will be sold to them from the Children of Canaan." , A new alternative interpretation of 4Q181, which is a Dead Sea scroll of Genesis, parallels the Book of Jubilees, suggesting that Canaan was cursed because he defied Noah’s division of the land. Ham, Noah’s son, saw the nakedness of his father and told his two brothers about it. In 1978, LDS Church president Spencer W. Kimball said he received a revelation that extended the priesthood to all worthy male members of the church without regard to race or color. Ham is usually listed as the middle son (Gen. 5:32; 10:1; 1 Chr. Another interpretation was that Noah's "youngest son" could not be Ham, who was the middle son: "for this reason they say that this youngest son was in fact Canaan. The issue seems to be with the words, âto look upon his nakedness.â. of het Egyptische woord kmt voor "Egypte". ~ Gen 9:18-19 The medieval commentary of Rashi (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki 1040–1105), who cites older sources from Judaism's Oral Torah, which is relied upon by traditional Judaic scholarship as the most basic commentary to the present time, provides an introductory explanation. , In medieval Christian exegesis, Ham's sin was regarded as laughter (for mocking his father and doing nothing to rectify his condition). Ham is supposed to have b ecome the ancestor, therefore, of … Genesis 9:23-27. Cush or Kush (, Kush) was, according to the Bible, the eldest son of Ham, a son of Noah. Ham. This thinking continues that because he acts without honor, he is cursed; hence, it is Godâs intention to curse dark-skinned people. , American/European slavery, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFKugle1998 (.  Even before slavery, in order to promote economic motivations within Europe associated with colonialism, the curse of Ham was used to shift the common Aristotelian belief that phenotypic differentiation among humans was a result of climatic difference, to a racialist perspective that phenotypic differentiation among the species was due to there being different racial types.  His priestly functions also emulate being "first priest" in accordance with halakhah as taught in the Qumranic works. According to Rab, Ham castrated Noah on the basis that, since Noah cursed Ham by his fourth son Canaan, Ham must have injured Noah with respect to a fourth son, by emasculating him, thus depriving Noah of the possibility of a fourth son. Africans had been enslaved by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints ( LDS denounced... To other biblical texts to find an explanation four sons: Cush, and so his sons and! ] [ 24 ] [ 61 ], Elsewhere in Medieval Europe, father. 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